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International Primary Care Association

Clinical Focus Volume 3 N1

Volume 3 Issue 1 - 2008


Visual impairment is a major cause of morbidity. Age related macular degeneration is the most common cause of visual impairment in the over 60’s. Treatment is aimed at preventing further loss of vision but is only suitable for a small percentage of patients. Early identification of these patients and providing lifestyle advice to those patients at high risk of the disease could help to reduce this form of visual loss.

The story so far:

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently defined as the consistent inability to obtain and maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory penetrative sexual intercourse.1 As recently as 1989, sexologist and psychiatrist Helen Singer Kaplan coined the term “presbyrectia” to draw attention to agerelated changes in erections.2 She chose the term with the root “presby,” meaning ‘old’ or ‘elder,’ for its analogy with presbyopia & presbycussis - other physiologic changes of old age. Presbyrectia was defined as:


Background: Male breast cancer is a rare disease, representing only about 1% of all breast cancers. Because of its rarity, no randomised clinical trials have been possible and most management practice is based on data from female breast cancer studies.

Case presentation: We report the case of a male patient with locally advanced breast cancer who had an excellent response to radical radiotherapy and tamoxifen.

Conclusion: We summarise the aetiology, pathology, clinical features and current management of male breast cancer. Although collaborative studies to specifically address the role of emerging therapies in male breast cancer could be established, it is likely that the decisions on management will continue to be extrapolated from the results from studies of female breast cancer.


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